# Chapter 21: Measuring: Virtue or Vice?

It is rather interesting to observe that numbers, derived from the Arabo-Indian system, are intriguingly powerful than one might apprehend. Truly, they give a subjective value that triggers an emotional perceiving. Words however, are much stronger than numerical values.

Generally speaking, (roughly) 70% words are for common use, but some of them are quite specific, not to mention the terminology in every field of study that are not included in the dictionary!

When we use words to measure, we employ ordinal scales, whereas in numerical circumstances, it is cardinal range of values that we apply.

What is the puzzling difference then? Suppose student X scored 75 in his midterm examination. There is a base (critical, or lower limit value) to consider in this particular case) level which is the grade required to pass. Passing that threshold would generate an intense feeling of secureness. And yet the expected/desired result would yield greater satisfaction. What if the scholastic system was grading its students with word-based system rather than just plain numbers?

But on a different aspect of the problem, examining arithmetic entities in terms of scale would be unquestionably relevant.

If we consider objects on an astronomical point of view, thereby we deny the existence of the Earth. In this rare case, only LightYears matter and, perhaps

One day, the cosmos’s boundaries will finally be known.

But then, on the other extreme,

If we look at the microscopic level,

In this other end of the spectrum,

Is there such a elements smaller than an atom?

Yet, we observed a strong tendency. Both of the other ends requires a insanely enormous amount of zeros to be measured.

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# Chapter XIX: An Individual’s Cycle

Continuing from the analogy of an individual’s cycle being compared to a economic, business cycle, one must assume that time is an important factor.

Below are displayed three hypothetical situations: each case represent’s and individual’s overall perfomance cycle (P) In a ten day period. The vertical axis corresponds to the numerical performance-measuring scale. We can clearly see that individual B follows a regular as the peaks and troughs equates almost. Any one of these curves can never be defined by a function unless the individual follows a very specific pattern.

This is an experimental work in process which shows the plus -minus-five scale (PMFS) model (graph) as tool of measuring cognitive and behavioural parameters.

# Chapter XVII: Examining Time

Assuming from we know from Economics, if time was a good, it would be a normal good. Based on their observed behavior, we can deduce the following empirical conclusion: people use wage obtained from hours of work to buy leisure time, which has many possible uses. It is impossible to save it, but possible to “invest it”. The probability that they would spend their leisure time, T­L,  ­on activities payback return (in other words, gratifying accomplishments) like reading, studying or writing. Another optimal choice is activities that generates periodic earnings, but to a certain extent, in which an excessive level of income is undesirable.

From a philosophical, metaphysical or even poetical way, time is reflected in youth’s splendour. From there we can conclude the following thesis: an event in life time occurs only once, if not brought on intentionally; for an event or incident (negative connotation) cannot happen twice, with the exact same circumstances. It is rather obvious that time moves progressively; to move regressively requires an artificially method. This particular method is actually burgeoning, with a highly revolutionary technology, virtual reality.  A consequence of time going backward would, if this statement taken word by word, “make every human being on earth experience their memories once more”. Would that increase marginal utility?  If people can live their most unforgettable life stories once more, by observing they past blunders, we can deduct they will pay attention to their future actions. But that is not yet possible. Time has still yet come…

Speaking of time…

Time is not visible even to the greatest optical instrument; however space is visible. By space we mean the environment, our immediate surroundings. If time is not visible, we want to measure the change in the environment. In Antiquity thinkers understood the concept when they see a very obvious change in weather, observed in seasons. From there, the Time system was created. A full year represents on unit, divided into sub-units. We can therefore deduct that every second correspond to a specific marginal change in the universe. So space depends on time. Space is the aggregation of everything on Earth. How can we divide space? With which possible techniques? Based on countries? Assuming that countries are not equally spread out in terms of land area, there is not a coherent structure for methodic analysis, therefore there is no place for constant linearity. Is surveying a good idea? What kind of sampling distribution it will generate? Instead, we may choose to simply form our research on existing literature and database. To do so the population density per kilometre squared is a good indicator. Unfortunately, this is an enormous range to work with. We might simply use metre-squared for reasonable purposes. And after evaluating this parameter, it seems legitimate that any individuals, with x standard deviations of the normal curve, using height as an indicator would fit well into these descriptive statistics for our results. Also, the Metric System is the optimal tool for this empirical framework. It is important to remind that we are working with a two dimensional space set.

Deriving for above, there is an important aspect to take into account, the Individual perspective, which divide, from eyesight, the environment. Two same individuals can never see the world from the exact same angle. And assuming we use sight to represent the totality of the five senses. Based on these assertions, we can confirm that this is the root of Subjectivity, for two individuals can never agree on everything.  This part is extremely complicated, follow carefully. We know that past experiences accumulates with time, which is equivalent into the number of memories. This variable can be translated into the number of changes in their environment with respect to one’s vision. Let technology be possible. We can fast-forward one’s lifelong journey into a fixed quantity of time, T, and set that to be the model with respect to the average life expectancy. By examining common events in individual’s lives, we can infer additional premises.

In mathematical terms, P(X)≠P(Y), where P stands for perspective, also point of view.

For next chapters/coming:                                                                                                                       Scientific analysis of the cause-effect relationship of music and memories

# Chapter IX: Some calculations

We can define any academic, social performance into one generalized equation with respect to time.

P=performance

T=f(P)

Also, just like in the economy, an individual’s performance is regulated  by cycles.

A complete, constant cycle is the goal, which is close to perfection.

Now what is interesting is the concept of trade-off, or opportunity cost.

Regulation is a schedule, which is everything is organized, the optimum, the perfection.

How could the graph for perfection looks like? On the horizontal axis?

Time on the Y axis.

Now what is the interesting is how much can the person extend his output, to what limit.

Can total output (performance) be decreasing? Yes, when marginal performance is less than zero. Decreasing return to scale would be useful. Decreasing marginal performance will occur.

We assume 1 unit of “perform” = one unit of time. Also, we assume that cumulative output is always rising, day after day.

# Chap. VII: The solution

We want to predict the future. That’s only thing we want to know.

If dx/dt= the solution to anything, we have found our solution to eternal peace.

Let me explain. We use a simple calculus formulae, the derivative, to produce deductive thinking. If people can predict ahead of time, then their marginal utility could be increased. We use deductive reasoning to have a different way of dealing with problem-solving.

# Chapter V: Analogy and ratio

We know that a lot of theories exists out there, but what if we can create something utterly simple, that everybody can understand, and generate theories from now then. For example, there has been theories about ”analogy” 119 pages long!

What is analogy? How can analogy help us?

An analogy is comparison between any two[i] things.[ii] An analogy help us deduce and induce[iii] thoughts.[iv]

How analogies are related[v] to ratio

A ratio is a proportion. [vi] An analogy is created when two or more ratios are equalized[vii].

[i] It must be two.

[ii] Understanding is more important than grammar, so we use Things for this definitions. Things can be variables, objects, ideas, etc.

[iii] Later we will define ‘’deduction’’ and ‘’induction’’

[iv] In other words, analogies help us think. By ‘’think’’, we mean ‘’making decisions rationally’’

[v] Related is a neutral word because it’s not a noun. A neutral word is something is not ambiguous (like when a word is used twice, in a sentence and as a concept).

[vi] A mathematical term.

[vii] Meaning ‘’equal’’

# Chap. 1: Starting from the beginning

Chapter I. Everything can be generalized.

It is often interesting to observe that a lot of things in nature can be correlated. In fact, we often make analogies without even noticing.

Now, the purpose of these theorical analysis is to generate theories that would apply to almost everything. We will use logical deductions. This is similar to metaphysics. Steven Hawkings tried to formulate a theory that would explain everything. How is that even possible? He failed, however, one can always challenge the impossible. The question is how? Where to start, where to begin?

Logically, if we start from small details, it will take forever to solve this. It’s like starting from a tree’s tiny branch. We should start from the root. Thus meaning starting from the most general first.  Now, what is the most general? A simple theory we have all in mind. The chicken and the egg. Who came first? Why this? Because there nothing else complex than that. The more complex it is, the more precise it is. The degree of simplicity of the chicken and the egg examplecan be compared to really basic 1+1=2 math. I will now later this analogy.

So basically, what is the chicken and the egg says about? Certainly not talking about the animal. Try to guess. Read what I have wrote above. Basically, I was trying to come up with the simplest possible concept. It is first idea of the Theory.  Now, watch carefully because things are going to speed up.

Why did we came with the chicken? What is relevant in all this? Because, there is a cause and effect relationship. Well, there is something that came first that led to another event. X triggers Y. Therefore, X and Y are related.

If one can understand this simple concept of the chicken, one can understand cause and effect relationship.

Now, there is only one variable in this analogy. To be clear, an analogy is putting any two situations that demonstrate similar tendacies. One is used to explain another. The concept of analogy is the utterly most important, as we base our research on it.

We can also distinguish two other definitions. A factor isn’t the same thing as a variable. Why? The difference between the two is that a factor is more broad (more simple, higher level of importance, lower level of accuracy) while a variable is more used in a given situation (for example, chicken is a variable, uncertainty is a factor). Again factors are extremely important because they are useful.

We have found our first concept, the cause and effect relationship. This implies that one event will necessarily trigger another. [Things starts to get complex.] This introduces a new concept, the concept of probability. [We have to remind ourselves that a concept is broader than a factor.] What are the chances that this event will likely be possible to happen? What are the chances that X triggers Y? That is our second Idea.