Category Archives: Psychology

Chapter 21: Measuring: Virtue or Vice?

It is rather interesting to observe that numbers, derived from the Arabo-Indian system, are intriguingly powerful than one might apprehend. Truly, they give a subjective value that triggers an emotional perceiving. Words however, are much stronger than numerical values.

Generally speaking, (roughly) 70% words are for common use, but some of them are quite specific, not to mention the terminology in every field of study that are not included in the dictionary!

When we use words to measure, we employ ordinal scales, whereas in numerical circumstances, it is cardinal range of values that we apply.

What is the puzzling difference then? Suppose student X scored 75 in his midterm examination. There is a base (critical, or lower limit value) to consider in this particular case) level which is the grade required to pass. Passing that threshold would generate an intense feeling of secureness. And yet the expected/desired result would yield greater satisfaction. What if the scholastic system was grading its students with word-based system rather than just plain numbers?

But on a different aspect of the problem, examining arithmetic entities in terms of scale would be unquestionably relevant.

If we consider objects on an astronomical point of view, thereby we deny the existence of the Earth. In this rare case, only LightYears matter and, perhaps

One day, the cosmos’s boundaries will finally be known.

But then, on the other extreme,

If we look at the microscopic level,

In this other end of the spectrum,

Is there such a elements smaller than an atom?

Yet, we observed a strong tendency. Both of the other ends requires a insanely enormous amount of zeros to be measured.


Chapter XX: The Power of Incentives

Incentive, by its meaning, suggests strongly about Game Theory. Psychological mindtricking is also one of the important facets. “What would be the opponent’s next manoeuver?” “How should I counter this tactical scheme?” “What is the best way to defend against this unforeseen invasion?” Those three sentences describe well the psychology of Chess, Xiang Qi, Go, and any other strategy turn-based game. It is rather amusing to observe the proportion of games won with this simple strategy.

Militarily, commercially, this simple game plan led many illustrious successes.  This stratagem refers to many principles of the Art of War by Sun-Tzu.

With its implication to Rationality, cognition would be altered or in other words “mind-washed” if the was not successfully able to defend from potential adversaries, if not expelled properly.  The probability the Individual would make the right choice would depend on his Cognition and Judgement.

Fear is one of the amplifying factors of Incentive-based traps. An Individual’s frightening will led him to the said Fate.  It has, intrinsically, a gambling-like effect. (This topic will be discussed in depth in the next chapters.)

The tools for Incentives are diverse. One could use the power of mathematics to calculate the time frame, the right timing to execute one’s action. Equally the use of Language, with respect to semantics and syntax, would enhance the mentioned effect by a certain coefficient.


Chapter XVIII: Rationality in Human Behavior

Assuming rationality is the foundation of human behaviour, we can model theories to generate future predictions. However, world reality confronts us to neglect sometimes this assumption. The individual will always make the best possible choice, as if it were a computer generated processor. What postulate can we infer from this fundamental theorem? Might we assume that this hypothetical, yet optimal idea is unattainable?This is a philosophical debate question: are all human rational behaviour based on rational axioms? Therefore, any irrational act is unintentional, or is it the opposite? Let us examine the effects of Rationality on a typical contemporary society.

First of all, what kind of inaccuracies people create?  Everyday life decisions, of course. Some are time-based, such as procrastination, lateness, staying up after nighttime, etc. Some are emotion-based: on purpose, such as anger, jealousy. (For a fact: thought can regulate emotions). Others, at lower intensity levels, are caused by an external stimuli, such as sadness, sorrow. Excitement, similarly, is also an interesting point to scrutinize.

Knowing those inaccuracies will benefit largely the following steps.

But Time is closely related to Rational thinking, cognitive process and emotional judgement. Why does an individual tries to fight instead of finding a mutual solution when facing someone he deems pugnacious? Subjective, impulsive act of hastiness. Theoretically, if this individual had 0.74352 seconds more, he could have made a better solution. Thus decreasing marginal fury will cause him to be more and more placid over time. We can therefore conclude that the consequences of opting an incorrect selection is much greater than the Willingness to reconsider an impetuous decision without any careful reflections.

This is the End of the Chapter.

Addtional Details:

Fact: If the time was an Enemy to conquer, we would hardly win the battle. Even with 7 487 673 094 people, Time would be the victor. Why? Because Time can run faster than anyone else in the Universe. Time has existed since the Universe was born, so even before that. The Earth’s fate depends on mankind. In mathematics, any variable in the Y axis given a possible function can reach upon Both sides of Infinity. Time can go beyond centuries and millennia, but it can never surpass the great doom of Infinity, for it shall be the Object of Reference for the sake of human’s understanding.

Also, the relativeness of time is crucial in our understanding of the principles of Logic. Staying seventy days in an lonely, isolated place might be equal to one year of schooling.  The great Einstein invented the formula of Relativity; for Time shall not depend on a same pack of individuals.

Human cannot predict time [to be correct, Time is a concept created by abstract humans to model reality], but can predict Nature’s Fate and their own. Trying to forecast financial activity of the stock market is one example that proves why it is with so much difficulty that humans cannot anticipate their own behavior with exactitude.


Pre-work Considerations

  1. Goals
  2. a) Predict individual behaviour by using cognitive analysis.
  3. b) Understanding key factors in human relations
  4. c) Create a universal, numerical-scale based measuring system
  5. d) Improve analysis methods by focusing on structure and patterns
  6. e) Create a systematic solution to categorize abstract concepts
  7. f) Understanding the decision-making process (optimal choice selection)
  8. g) Create a method of quantifying emotion by measuring it


  1. Methods
  2. a) From a sample, generate theories that applies to a whole population.
  3. b) Using economic concepts to
  4. c) Simplify to clarify
  5. d) Detailed Explanation of Concepts
  6. e) Content Analysis of Games


Core concept: Equilibrium

List of Ideas

Strategy, Resource allocation, Opportunity cost, Decision making, Time/Timing (perfect moment/opportunity), Space/Distance, Estimation, Prediction, Aesthetic, Belief, Imagination, Energy (physical, mental)


– To reduce the margin of error, alpha

– To reduce confusion (incomprehensiveness, misunderstanding of human behaviour through cognitive analysis.

– Of the fundamental application of our theorem is to enhance the positive effects of cognitive behavioural therapy





Chap. 2: Interesting Information

A. (Calculus)
  • The rate of change of the gap (disparity) of the individuals’s performances through out lifetime.
B. (Stats)
  • The mean (average or expected value) of the correlations (degree of strength of relationship or link). The correlations has its own probability distribution function (pdf)
  • The mean (average or expected value) number of events that cause another one and their correlation
C. (Microeconomics) Realistic (Alternative) definition of the marginal utility.           Example with apples.
  • The skin represents 0.1% of the apple’s total volume. That additional (marginal or extra) amount of nutritious value . The skin of the apple represents is insignificant in terms of marginal utility, and implicitly the nutritious value.
D. Considering time as a good (resource), as an dependent variable. Leisure time is a good.
  • (Calculus)
    • Other use of the derivative. To measure the words
    • Similarly, using integrals in historical events (the summation,
  • (Stats)
    • The conditional probability is used to represent the cause and effect relationship
  • (History)
    • Analogy between one’s own life time and historical periods
F. (Metaphysics)
  • The materialization of thought.
  • Similarly, the dematerialization of things.
G. Similar to the previous section F.
  • Using the concept of derivatives like in the infinite mirror effect, the reflection effect, to explain a process repeated (iterated) an infinite number of times.
H. (Core)
  • The fundamentals are Link, Categorize Definitions
  • Link. Trying as much as possible to link [abstract] concepts such as derivative, materialization
  • Categorize. 
I.  Brainstorm. List all ideas.
  • Clarity. Subjectivity
  • (Econ), normal, positive, negative, absolute infinite
  • (Calculus)
  • Real, irrational
  • (Psy)
    • Behavior, mood, stamina, judgement, cognition.
  • (Stats)
    • Standard deviation, average, expected value
  • Time, future, value
J. (Calculus)
  • The inverse function, such as f'(x) gives. It is the opposite way of deductive thinking. It is also known as reverse psychology.
I.  (Social)
  • An incentive is like a trap (or a fish rod). It may be a self suggestion.
K. (Calculus)
  • The range (or limits) should be numerical. But they do no have to be cardinal. The ycould be ordinal.
L. (Psychology)
  • A deductive thinking process can be started from an empirical observation.
M. (Metaphysics)
  • Time can be stored. Time is a material. Time exists
N. (Metaphysics)
  • Everything is Binary System Based
O.  Various.
  • A mouse click is an opportunity cost.
  • (psychology)
    • Classic conditioning